For the past several releases, the Fedora Project has been pursuing what it calls Fedora Next. Previous Fedora releases also had a "cloud" edition, but with the latest release—Fedora 25, a major update for this Linux distribution—that's been replaced by Fedora Atomic.
Fedora Cloud, aside from having a meaningless name, didn't quite pan out. And they can be summed up in a single word: Wayland. Yes, after being pushed back from release after release, Fedora 25 finally defaults to using the Wayland graphics stack assuming you have a supported graphics card. This is perhaps the biggest change to come in the Linux world since the move to systemd.
However, unlike that systemd transition, the switch to Wayland was so seamless I had to logout and double check that I was in fact using Wayland. The biggest change in this release is undoubtedly the move to Wayland as the default, erm protocol, replacing the venerable X Server. Wayland's goal is to be easier to develop and maintain.
To a lesser degree, it also aims to get rid of the X's confusing clutter of accumulated bits that have been bolted on over the years. Wayland is not, strictly speaking, a display server like X. Wayland is a protocol for a compositor to talk through. To make things more confusing the compositor can be a Wayland client itself. It could also be an X application, some input device or a standalone display server. Wayland doesn't actually do much and that's by design. As the Wayland FAQ puts it, "the compositor sends input events to the clients.
The clients render locally and then communicate video memory buffers and information about updates to those buffers back to the compositor. What's perhaps most remarkable for a change that's so low-level, and in fact one that's taking a lot of X functionality and moving lower down into the stack, is how unlikely you are to notice it. During testing so far encompassing about two weeks of use as I write thisthe transition to Wayland has been totally transparent.
It's difficult to describe without seeing it, but little moments of tearing that used to happen under X are gone and common tasks like dragging windows are much smoother. To be clear there are still plenty of things that don't work with Wayland. In fact there likely will always be legacy system elements that don't know what to make of Wayland and will never be updated. For that situation there's XWayland, which is a plugin for Wayland compositors that runs a real X server inside Wayland.
XWayland is a big part of why you're unlikely to notice the move to Wayland. For example, take desktop icons.
Fedora 25: Wayland 大战 Xorg
I've also been unable to find a clipboard manager that works properly under Wayland. The other problem I've run into is that neither of the tint-shifting applications I use work with Wayland. Neither f. Judging by posts from around the Web, video playback is sometimes an issue too, though I have not actually experienced this problem. In terms of hardware support and Wayland, I would definitely suggest sticking with kernel 4. It works great at 2X, which covers most screens, but there are those where 1X is too small, but 2X is too much.
If you have a screen that works best at 1. Those are, however, relatively minor issues. The biggest caveat to all the good news in Wayland is that Nvidia's proprietary driver does not support Wayland.
The open source Nouveau drivers do, but those drivers can be a noticeable step down depending on your system and what you're trying to do.
In my experience, the Nouveau drivers are also a little buggy, though to be clear I haven't tested them with Wayland. Along with Wayland, Fedora 25 brings Linux kernel 4.Almost as good as Alien vs Predator only much better. Anyhow, as you probably know, I have recently tested Fedora It was an okay experience. Overall, the distro behaved reasonably well. Not the fastest, but stable enough, usable enough, with some neat improvements here and there. Most importantly, apart from some performance and responsiveness loss, Wayland did not cause my system to melt.
But that's just a beginning. Wayland is in its infancy as a consumer technology, or at least that thing that people take for granted when they do desktop stuff.
Therefore, I must continue testing. Never surrender. In the past few weeks of actively using Fedora 25, I did come across a few other issues and problems, some less worrying, some quite disturbing, some odd, some meaningless.
Let us elaborate. If you go about a Web, doing some reading, you will have learned that all sorts of things are not yet Wayland-ready. Still, we all know Fedora is the state-of-art bleeding-edge distro, and so it's a testbed for pain and discovery.
For a while, things were quite all right, no fuss, no errors, but then, I suddenly needed to use GParted. I was in a hurry, troubleshooting a big issue, and now I had to sidetrack myself with pointless extra work.
GParted would just not launch under Wayland. Exploring in a bit more detail, I learned that this partitioning software was not supported yet. And the thing is, I do not really know what other applications do not work under Wayland, and I am not really keen to discover that in a moment of true reckoning. Searching online, I wasn't able to find a quick, easy list that details the current incompatibilities. What I did find is a self-argument telling us why Wayland is good, a list of Gnome applications currently supported under this new thingie, several nerdy pages on ArchWiki, a super-nerdy slit-my-wrists topic on Nvidia devtalk, and a few other ambiguous discussions.
On the Fedora 25 box, I changed the login session from Gnome Wayland to Gnome Xorg, to see how this affects the system. I did previously mention the performance benchmarks and comparison to Fedora 24 on the same laptop - Lenovo G50but this should give us even more accurate results. Wayland screenshot 1 gives us 1. Marginally less in sheer numbers.
But then, the experience in the Xorg session is just so much better. It's milliseconds alright, but you can feel it. The legacy session seems to be ever so slightly sprightlier, faster, fresher. The lag is less noticeable. If you are sensitive as to how your desktop responds, you will not be happy with this penalty. Sure, this may only be a bit of sub-optimized beginner's luck, and Wayland may improve over time.
But it's also something we cannot ignore. I am not happy with this. Not massively angry, but I don't like that I actually need to login into the classic X session to be able to fully enjoy my desktop experience.
Wayland does not.Brief: This quick tutorial shows you how to go back to Xorg from Wayland in Ubuntu and vice versa. One of the main new features in Ubuntu As more and more Linux distributions are moving away from the legacy X.
Org server and Wayland seems to be the top alternative. While Wayland maybe the future, it really is in future. At least for Ubuntu The issue here is that a number of Linux desktop applications still depend on X. For example, I had a hard time trying to record screen in Ubuntu. Apart from Green Recordernone of the other Linux screen recorders worked. This spoils the otherwise pleasant Ubuntu So what would be the solution here?
Wait for all those applications to work with Wayland? An easier way out would be to switch back to Xorg from Wayland. And I am going to show you how to do that in this quick tip. Remember that I said Wayland is the default display server in Ubuntu It also means that there are more than one display servers available. And we can simply switch between them. No need to install anything new.
Restart you Ubuntu system. The default Ubuntu means it will be using Wayland while Ubuntu on Xorg obviously means it will use Xorg.
You can select Ubuntu on Xorg to use Xorg here. To find that out, open a terminal and use the following command:. If you see Wayland, quite obviously, the display server in use is Wayland.
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Quick Tip: Few programs that require root privileges have troubles with Wayland. I hope this quick tip helped you to switch to Xorg from Wayland in Ubuntu. Stay tuned for more Ubuntu tips and tricks. I am an avid Linux lover and open source enthusiast. I use Ubuntu and believe in sharing knowledge.This mostly in place now. GDM starts the login screen on wayland, but will fallback to Xorg if wayland doesn't work.
At the moment, a user can choose to log in to a Wayland session from the login screen, but the login screen itself always runs on top of X. The point of this change is to change that, and make the login screen always run on a Wayland session. Fedora is steadily progressing toward the goal of replacing X uses with Wayland based uses instead. This is one step toward achieving that goal.
The login session is sufficiently isolated and contained, that it makes an ideal first place to put Wayland by default. There should be little to no user visible impact with this change.
How to Configure Xorg as Default GNOME Session in Fedora
Ideally the user won't be able to tell the difference between the login screen running on X versus the login screen running on Wayland.
All Rights Reserved. For comments or queries, please contact us. The Fedora Project is maintained and driven by the community and sponsored by Red Hat.
This is a community maintained site. Red Hat is not responsible for content. This page was last edited on 23 Marchat Content is available under Attribution-Share Alike 3.Wayland is a secure display protocol as well as a library implementing the protocol, that enables communication between your video hardware the server and clients each and every single application on your system. If you notice that some of your applications are not functioning as expected in Waylandyou can switch to GNOME in X11 as shown in this article.
The first is by choosing the Gnome on xorg option in the session chooser on the login screen and the second way is by manually editing the GNOME display manager GDM configuration as shown below.
First, determine the session number and other details by running the following loginctl command. Next, find out the type of session is running by using the following command replace 2 with your actual session number. Then uncomment the line below to force the login screen to use Xorg display manager. Save the changes in the file and reboot your system to start using xorg as the default GNOME session manager.
After the system reboot, verify again your session number and type by running the following commands, it should show Xorg.
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Tags: Fedora Tips. View all Posts. Aaron Kili is a Linux and F. S enthusiast, an upcoming Linux SysAdmin, web developer, and currently a content creator for TecMint who loves working with computers and strongly believes in sharing knowledge. Your name can also be listed here. Got a tip? Submit it here to become an TecMint author.
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Ending In: 4 days. Fedora 0.
Check Session Type. Check Gnome Session Type. Sharing is Caring Got something to say? Join the discussion. Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. I TecMint :. Michal, This book is based on v3.The code will automatically fall back to Xorg in cases where wayland is unavailable like nvidia. Using Wayland instead of X gives a much better basis for isolating applications from each other and the system.
Systems using certain graphics hw or graphics drivers matrox, qxl may have problems running the Wayland session. In these rare cases, users may have to configure gdm to use X11 although automatic fallback should work most of the time. If we don't manage to close all the feature parity gaps entirely, then users relying on those features may have to choose the Xbased session. The tasks lists in the Scope section are spread across a number of upstream modules and packages: gtk3, gnome-shell, mutter, libinput, Xorg, gdm.
All Rights Reserved. For comments or queries, please contact us. The Fedora Project is maintained and driven by the community and sponsored by Red Hat. This is a community maintained site.
Red Hat is not responsible for content. This page was last edited on 24 Augustat Content is available under Attribution-Share Alike 3.I originally planned to use the i3 window manager, but then I learned that Wayland is the more secure, more lightweight successor to Xorg, and that Sway is basically a drop-in replacement for i3 using Wayland.
Then I learned that Nvidia are very bullheaded regarding how their driver handles Wayland, so Sway won't support Nvidia proprietary drivers in the future. Since your laptop has only p that should be of no concern for you. Is wayland more secure than Xorg? But only in the way that my display server, the full source code of which is below, is even far more secure than either of them:. Wayland probably does a couple of the things you want it to, so you can judge how useful it is compared to Xorg despite being somewhat more secure.
Xorg will do pretty much everything you'd want, with the potential of being slightly less secure in some particular conditions which may not even be relevant on your machine. Then also keep in mind, if you want to run any programs in Wayland, you'll likely be running Xorg anyways, just as a child process of your Wayland compositor. Hi there, welcome to the boards. Not exactly a direct answer to your question regarding Wayland and it boils down to what level of isolation you need, Xorg is fine just don't run it as root in the first place but I wouldn't do that with Wayland either There are other ways to create isolation.
Thanks guys. So basically Wayland is more secure, but Xorg doesn't need to be actively worried about. Or to put it another way, there are probably much larger security concerns to deal with first if one is worried Xorg vulnerabilities. One has to walk a fine line between having a reasonably secure system and not spending all their time trying to patch every way to get into a system. Maybe I should clarify that: there's a design aspect in X11 that makes perfect process isolation impossible.
Wayland compositors try to deal with that, but that doesn't inherently make them more secure. You will never have perfect process isolation on a desktop system, because you want to transfer data between processes aka copy and paste and there's IPC everywhere.
The actual security depends on the implemented channels and guards and their quality. Otoh it's perfectly reasonable that there can be bugs in unrelated parts of the wayland compositors which tend to be pretty damn complex, where sway is rather on the skinny side that can bleed over into the compositor - esp.
An interesting read. I wonder if there are any Nvidia engineers that wish they could open source their driver. Wayland isn't complete, also most of gnulinux gui apps use xorg they launch on wayland by Xwayland compatibility xorg server for wayland. Sway doesn't support my nvidia gt, and nvidia driver at all you need to use nouveau driver with sway.